The adult patient with cardiac failure: a clinical nursing perspective

  • G Schellack
Keywords: cardiac failure, heart failure, cardiac output, stroke volume, ejection fraction, LVEF, HFpEF, HFrEF


The global disease burden posed by heart failure (HF) is significant. HF constitutes an often-encountered diagnosis in clinical nursing practice, especially amongst elderly patients. The prognosis of HF remains poor. This article aims to provide the nursing practitioner with a basic overview and refresher of this debilitating condition, its classification and treatment, as well as the associated nursing care implications.

Author Biography

G Schellack

Pharmaceutical industry specialist in clinical research and applied pharmacology, South Africa